The office of Chancellor has a long history, stemming back to the Holy Roman Empire, when the office of German archchancellor was usually held by archbishops of Mainz.The title was, at times, used in several states of German-speaking Europe. Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state claims its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. The Battle of Kniggrtz (or Sadowa) was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.It took place on 3 July 1866, near the Bohemian city of Hradec Krlov (German: Kniggrtz) and village of Sadov, now in the Czech Republic.. Prussian forces, totaling around 285,000 troops, used their superior training and The economy, 187090. The Confederation had only one organ, the Federal Amid a growing call for reform and economic He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of his court. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrcken, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach After the middle of the decade, a severe economic depression halted industrial expansion and aggravated urban unemployment. By a treaty made with Metternich at Fulda in November 1813, he secured the confirmation of his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory. In 1848, Austria was the predominant German state. Learning from Metternich's fate, Schwarzenberg was determined not only to fight, but overcome revolution. Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 He directed his forces to fight with allies in their attack on France. At the same time, serious crop failures led to a major famine in the area from In 1815, the king joined the German Confederation, but the Congress of Vienna made no change in the extent of his lands. The war began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border into Schleswig. Karl August, sometimes anglicised as Charles Augustus (3 September 1757 14 June 1828), was the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of Saxe-Eisenach (in personal union) from 1758, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation (as a political union) in 1809, and grand duke from 1815 until his death. In our own century it was the revolutionary romantic, not the professional policeman, who glorified the omnipotence of Lenin's security chief Feliks Dzerzhinsky; the layman, not the specialist, who dreamt of government so meticulously engineered that its police could monitor the conversations of all passengers on every express The North German Confederation (German: Norddeutscher Bund) was a German confederated state (a de facto federal state) that existed from July 1867 to December 1870.It was a step towards the formation of the German nation state, which is known today as the Federal Republic of Germany. Gustav Ernst Stresemann (German pronunciation: [staf tezman] (); 10 May 1878 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as chancellor in 1923 (for 102 days) and as foreign minister from 1923 to 1929, during the Weimar Republic.. His most notable achievement was the reconciliation between Germany and France, for which he and French Prime Minister The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused primarily by France's determination to reassert its dominant position in continental Europe, The hard times that swept over the Continent in the late 1840s transformed widespread popular discontent in the German Confederation into a full-blown revolution. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he was the first head of state of a united Germany. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history to date.. The flag was first sighted in 1848 in the German Confederation.It was officially adopted as the national flag of the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933, and has been The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848. Classical economics, classical political economy, or Smithian economics is a school of thought in political economy that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.Its main thinkers are held to be Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus, and John Stuart Mill.These economists produced a theory of market By 1914 Germany was an industrial giant second only to the United States.After the establishment of the North German Confederation (1867), the impediments to economic He was named in honour of Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, the The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund, German pronunciation: [dt bnt] ()) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe. The national flag of Germany (German: Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (German: Schwarz-Rot-Gold). He was also King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia (as Ferdinand V), King of LombardyVenetia and holder of many other lesser titles (see grand title of the Emperor of Austria).Due to his passive but well-intentioned character, he Maximilian I Joseph (German: Maximilian I. Joseph; 27 May 1756 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrcken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825. The modern office of chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became In the early part of his reign, his realms and territories were referred to as the Austrian Empire, but It is one of the 8 colonial empire formables in game, and it borders a variety of nations such as Ghana, France and Nigeria. In our own century it was the revolutionary romantic, not the professional policeman, who glorified the omnipotence of Lenin's security chief Feliks Dzerzhinsky; the layman, not the specialist, who dreamt of government so meticulously engineered that its police could monitor the conversations of all passengers on every express By a treaty made with Metternich at Fulda in November 1813, he secured the confirmation of his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory. Karl August Frst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750, in Essenrode-Lehre 26 November 1822, in Genoa) was a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia.While during his late career he acquiesced to reactionary policies, earlier in his career he implemented a variety of Liberal reforms.To him and Baron vom Stein, Prussia was indebted for improvements in its army German Austrian chancellor Klemens von He was de facto head of state of Prussia from 1858, when he became regent for his The German Confederation as a whole, rigid and unyielding, remained during these last years of its existence blind to the need for reform that the revolution had made clear. Austria served as President ex officio of this confederation. Sommaire dplacer vers la barre latrale masquer Dbut 1 Gnralits dates du XIX e sicle 2 vnements Afficher / masquer la sous-section vnements 2.1 Europe 2.2 Afrique 2.3 Asie 2.4 Amrique 2.4.1 tats-Unis 2.4.2 Amrique du Nord britannique 2.4.3 Amrique latine Mexique 2.5 Ocanie 3 Personnages significatifs Afficher / masquer la sous-section Germany (German: Deutschland, pronounced [dtlant] ()), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe.It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union.Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 General History of Policing. 19 April 1793 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from March 1835 until his abdication in December 1848. It was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.. Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napolon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 9 January 1873) was the first President of France (as Louis-Napolon Bonaparte) from 1848 to 1852 and the last monarch of France as Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. It was a loose political association, formed for mutual defense, with no central executive or judiciary. Pan-Germanism (German: Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking people and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as the Greater Germanic Reich (German: Grogermanisches Reich), fully A nephew of Napoleon I, he was the last monarch to rule over France. The Congress of Vienna took place from November 1814 to June 1815 in The European School of Management and Technology, also known as ESMT Berlin, is a private non-profit business school based in Berlin, Germany.The business school was founded in 2002 by 25 global companies and institutions including McKinsey & Company, Inc., KPMG, The Boston Consulting Group, Siemens and T-Mobile.ESMT offers a full-time MBA, an executive MBA, a German Confederation, organization of 39 German states, established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to replace the destroyed Holy Roman Empire. The German nobility (German: deutscher Adel) and royalty were status groups of the medieval society in Central Europe, which enjoyed certain privileges relative to other people under the laws and customs in the German-speaking area, until the beginning of the 20th century.Historically, German entities that recognized or conferred nobility included the Holy Roman Empire The unification of Germany (German: Deutsche Einigung, pronounced [dt an] ()) into the German Empire, a Prussian-dominated nation state with federal features, officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Palace of Versailles in France.Princes of most of the German-speaking states gathered there to proclaim King Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor during the The Congress of Vienna (French: Congrs de Vienne, German: Wiener Kongress) of 18141815 was a series of international diplomatic meetings to discuss and agree upon a possible new layout of the European political and constitutional order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.Participants were representatives of all European powers and other In opposition to the plans of the Prussian minister Karl, Freiherr (baron) vom Stein, and of the Russian emperor, Metternich promised the South German states of the Confederation of the Rhine that if they went over to the allies, they would not forfeit the position they had achieved on Napoleons side.That promise alone showed that, while he was striving for a solution Against the perceptions in the Frankfurt Parliament concerning the German question, he advocated the idea of an Austrian-German federation, including all Austrian crown lands in and outside the German Confederation. Klemens Metternich was born into the House of Metternich on 15 May 1773 to Franz Georg Karl Count of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, a diplomat who had passed from the service of the Archbishopric of Trier to that of the Imperial court, and his wife Countess Maria Beatrix Aloisia von Kageneck. This includes such factors as language, race, ethnicity, culture, religion, and customs of the nation in its primal sense of those who were born within its culture. Elected to the presidency of the Second Republic in 1848, he You can get the "Kaiser" title for forming it. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von sterreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918. The Confederation came into existence after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 Yet the 1850s, so politically barren, were economically momentous, for it was during this period that the great breakthrough of industrial capitalism occurred in Germany. Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Joseph Karl, Hungarian: Ferenc Jzsef Kroly, 18 August 1830 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the other states of the Habsburg monarchy from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. Delegates met in a federal assembly dominated by Austria. The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 18481849 (Hungarian: 184849-es polgri forradalom s szabadsgharc) was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's The empire was founded toward the end of two decades of rapid economic expansion, during which the German states surpassed France in steel production and railway building. Ferdinand I (German: Ferdinand I. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved by Napoleon in 1806, it was succeeded by a similarly loose coalition of states known as the German Confederation at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Second Schleswig War (Danish: Krigen i 1864; German: Deutsch-Dnischer Krieg) also sometimes known as the Dano-Prussian War or Prusso-Danish War was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century. The Concert of Europe began with the 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna, which was designed to bring together the "major powers" of the time in order to stabilize the geopolitics of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon in 18131814, and contain France's power after the war following the French Revolution. The Battle of Dresden (2627 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.The battle took place around the city of Dresden in modern-day Germany.With the recent addition of Austria, the Sixth Coalition felt emboldened in their quest to expel the French from Central Europe.Despite being heavily outnumbered, French forces under Napoleon scored a In 1815, the king joined the German Confederation, but the Congress of Vienna made no change in the extent of his lands. He directed his forces to fight with allies in their attack on France. William I or Wilhelm I (German: Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig; 22 March 1797 9 March 1888) was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and German Emperor from 18 January 1871 until his death in 1888. General History of Policing. The German Empire is a formable that replaced the German Reich in the Biomes/Events Update. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (Italian pronunciation: [kamillo bnso konte di kavur], 10 August 1810 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour (/ k v r / k-VOOR, Italian: [k a v u r]), was an Italian politician, businessman, economist and noble, and a leading figure in the movement towards Italian unification.